Galactorrhea is a rare endocrine disorder, characterized by abnormal milk production (lactation), lack of ovulation (anovulation) and absence of regular menstruation (amenorrhea). This condition is normally caused by a hormone-secreting tumor, located in the pituitary gland (pituitary gland) or hypothalamus, called the adenoma and which produces excessive amounts of prolactin.
Galactoreea is the phenomenon of leakage of a milk fluid from the nipple level, without the woman being in the breastfeeding period. This phenomenon is quite common in women who have had children or women who have recently become pregnant or have stopped breastfeeding. Also, galactorrhea occurs quite often in newborn babies (in the past it was called and "witch milk"). Otherwise, galactorrhea occurs due to irritation or stimulation of the breast, which can occur during trauma, surgery or even by compressing the nipple. However, even soaps, creams or clothes with a rough surface, can be the basis of galactore production.
In most women, galactorrhea occurs when estrogen hormone changes occur. Also, this situation occurs if the woman begins to use or on the contrary, refuses to use contraceptive pills. At the same time, the level of estrogen changes after surgery to remove the ovaries or after an abortion.
When it occurs in women who have never had a child or in men, galactorrhea may be due to a more severe condition. Herpes zoster (a type of rash caused by varicella virus) and fibrocystic breast disease include herpes galactore.
Some drugs are also criminalized. Galactorrhea may also occur in kidney or liver disease or due to pituitary gland tumors. This tumor can create an extremely serious situation, as the pituitary gland controls many functions of the body and can even be a type of cancer.
The main symptom of galactorrhea is leakage from the nipples of a milky fluid. Occasionally, this fluid may spontaneously leak, otherwise it may leak due to nipple stimulation by squeezing.
In order to evaluate galactorrhea the doctor will perform both physical examination and blood tests. Blood tests measure hormone levels. The doctor may also request an MRI (nuclear magnetic resonance) or brain CT scan. Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are able to visualize the brain and can detect a possible pituitary tumor.
It is worth mentioning that for most women galactorrhea is remitted without any treatment. If the patient uses drugs that have the adverse effect of galactore, the doctor may request that these drugs be discontinued. If galactorrhea is upsetting, your doctor may prescribe drugs to stop it.
If galactorrhea is due to a pituitary tumor, surgery or radiotherapy is recommended. The surgery is performed to remove the tumor. Radiation therapy works through another mechanism. Through a special device, a ray emitter, it acts on the tumor and it shrinks. Radiation therapy acts slowly in terms of its therapeutic effect, sometimes taking several months to reduce the tumor.
Period of recovery
In most women, galactorrhea is usually remitted without treatment.
The measures that can be taken to prevent the recurrence of galactore are: not to stimulate or irritate the breasts by compressing and squeezing the nipples.